Organic Titanates have many and varied industrial applications and numerous claims have been made and patents and technical literatures have been published on the application of these chemicals. The various applications can usually be classified into one of the three categories :
There are several applications, which are difficult to be classified, on as simple basis, as mentioned above. Some of the applications may fall in two of the above categories. We will rather discuss the specific industries, where titanates have been used successfully giving desirable performance and properties.
The following industries are major users of the titanates :
Organic Titanates, specially Isopropyl, Butyl and 2-Ethyl hexyl titanates are very good catalysts for carrying out esterification and transesterification reactions. Following are the advantages of using organic titanates as catalysts over the conventional acidic catalysts :
Limitations : Titanates are effective as esterification catalyst above 180°C and therefore can be used only in case of esterification with higher alcohols. This limits the use of these wonderful catalysts only for the manufacture of products like DOP, DOA, DOM, TOTM, DIDP and DIOP etc.
In addition to plasticizer manufacturing, titanates are also used as esterification catalysts to make other esters and polyesters.
The major usage in paints can be classified into two types :
High temperature paints : Paints which can conveniently stand temperatures upto 650°C can be formulated using Organic Titanates. The most recommended titanates suitable for this application is Polybutyl Titanate, in some of the formulations Tetra Butyl Titanate has also been used with or without silicones. The titanates acts as vehicle for the paint and on hydrolysis with atmospheric moisture forms polymeric titanium oxide on the surface, which acts as a binder to hold the metallic pigments like leafing aluminium or zinc but the maximum temperature is limited by the melting point of the pigment.
Acrylic emulsion paints (Thixotropic latex paints) : When certain water soluble chelates like alkanolamine titanates are added to latex paints, a thixotropic structure is developed. Addition of titanates gives the following advantages :
Other Paints :
Titanates crosslink most of the resins used in the paints and coatings and the film formed is much better than the film without titanate. The film with titanate as additive is much harder, has better adhesion, better scrub resistance, better water and solvent resistance.
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An important use of organic titanates in the polyester resin field is the crosslinking via the free hydroxyl groups, of terephthalate copolyesters blended with the titanium compounds to produce enameling formulation. In some cases the solvent mixture in such varnishes include phenol or cresols, which also become crosslinked and contribute to the physical characteristics of the cured varnish films.
The enamel is coated directly on to a conductor or onto another insulating coating on a conductor and then baked to obtain an outer insulated coat of high heat resistance. The coatings also have excellent mechanical properties, as well as good resistance to abrasion, solvents and aging.
The titanates are the most preferred curing agent, because they give the best cured films with much superior electrical and mechanical properties, in addition to better curing rates, improved adhesion, better heat-shock resistance and also lower curing temperatures.
Titanates are similarly used in Polyester-imide based wire enamels, and in water based and dry powder-coating systems as curing agents.
There are many cases today where the printing inks manufactured do no meet the needed requirements of the packaging industry. With the advent of technology use of plastics and metals has grown manifold in the packaging industry. The packaging needs a printing, which should last long and also be able to stand the different conditions while handling the product. The main problem faced is the adhesion of the printing ink to the substrate. It is a common complaint that the printing ink does not remain on the packaging and are removed while handling the packs. This problem can be conveniently overcome by the use of Organic Titanium Compounds in the printing ink formulations.
The Organo Titantes react with the resins like nitrocellulose etc in the printing ink by crosslinking through the free hydroxy, carboxylic and other reactive groups. A normal titanate is found to be very reactive in such systems and, therefore, a Chelated Organic Titanate is used for this purpose. The most recommended ones are Titanium Butyl Phosphate and Titanium Acetyl Acetonate. These, when incorporated in the ink formulations, impart following advantages:
There are lot of applications of titanates in the polymer industry, both as a catalyst and also as a crosslinking and curing agent.
Titanates as crosslinking and curing agents :
There are numerous patents and literatures available for this application of titanates. It will be very difficult to put all of them here, only a few are given as under :
In addition to the above there are many more applications in crosslinking and curing of different resins. The users are requested to contact us with their specific requirements.
In addition to the above major ares of applications titanates have been successfully used for the following applications :