Organic Titanates have many and varied industrial applications and numerous claims have been made and patents and technical literatures have been published on the application of these chemicals. The various applications can usually be classified into one of the three categories :

  • Catalytic
  • Surface modification
  • Cross-linking

There are several applications, which are difficult to be classified, on as simple basis, as mentioned above. Some of the applications may fall in two of the above categories. We will rather discuss the specific industries, where titanates have been used successfully giving desirable performance and properties.

The following industries are major users of the titanates :


Organic Titanates, specially Isopropyl, Butyl and 2-Ethyl hexyl titanates are very good catalysts for carrying out esterification and transesterification reactions. Following are the advantages of using organic titanates as catalysts over the conventional acidic catalysts :

  • The reaction is practically complete, giving better yields and purer material.
  • There is no degradation of the raw materials and therefore large excess of alcohols can be used, which can be conveniently recycled without much purification.
  • There are no side reactions.
  • The final product has a much better colour and odour, in spite of longer reaction times.
  • There is no need to carry-out neutralisation after the completion of the reaction. Avoiding of the neutralisation makes the process more eco-friendly, simultaneously avoiding a complicated step and formation of emulsions etc.
  • Removal of catalyst in this case is very easy. Just heating with small quantity of base in water after the completion of reaction and before the carbon treatment removes the catalyst on the filter bed.

Limitations : Titanates are effective as esterification catalyst above 180°C and therefore can be used only in case of esterification with higher alcohols. This limits the use of these wonderful catalysts only for the manufacture of products like DOP, DOA, DOM, TOTM, DIDP and DIOP etc.

In addition to plasticizer manufacturing, titanates are also used as esterification catalysts to make other esters and polyesters.


The major usage in paints can be classified into two types :

  • TriethanolamineHigh temperature paints
  • Acrylic emulsion paints

High temperature paints : Paints which can conveniently stand temperatures upto 650°C can be formulated using Organic Titanates. The most recommended titanates suitable for this application is Polybutyl Titanate, in some of the formulations Tetra Butyl Titanate has also been used with or without silicones. The titanates acts as vehicle for the paint and on hydrolysis with atmospheric moisture forms polymeric titanium oxide on the surface, which acts as a binder to hold the metallic pigments like leafing aluminium or zinc but the maximum temperature is limited by the melting point of the pigment.

Acrylic emulsion paints (Thixotropic latex paints) : When certain water soluble chelates like alkanolamine titanates are added to latex paints, a thixotropic structure is developed. Addition of titanates gives the following advantages :

  • Material with better thixotropy is produced, giving a non drip paint. No brush marks are seen on the painted surface.
  • The paint shows much less syneresis.
  • The paint has better water and scrub resistance as compared to paints without titanium chelate.

Other Paints :
Titanates crosslink most of the resins used in the paints and coatings and the film formed is much better than the film without titanate. The film with titanate as additive is much harder, has better adhesion, better scrub resistance, better water and solvent resistance.
Please contact us with your specific requirements.

Wire Enamels

An important use of organic titanates in the polyester resin field is the crosslinking via the free hydroxyl groups, of terephthalate copolyesters blended with the titanium compounds to produce enameling formulation. In some cases the solvent mixture in such varnishes include phenol or cresols, which also become crosslinked and contribute to the physical characteristics of the cured varnish films.

The enamel is coated directly on to a conductor or onto another insulating coating on a conductor and then baked to obtain an outer insulated coat of high heat resistance. The coatings also have excellent mechanical properties, as well as good resistance to abrasion, solvents and aging.

The titanates are the most preferred curing agent, because they give the best cured films with much superior electrical and mechanical properties, in addition to better curing rates, improved adhesion, better heat-shock resistance and also lower curing temperatures.

Titanates are similarly used in Polyester-imide based wire enamels, and in water based and dry powder-coating systems as curing agents.

Printing Inks

There are many cases today where the printing inks manufactured do no meet the needed requirements of the packaging industry. With the advent of technology use of plastics and metals has grown manifold in the packaging industry. The packaging needs a printing, which should last long and also be able to stand the different conditions while handling the product. The main problem faced is the adhesion of the printing ink to the substrate. It is a common complaint that the printing ink does not remain on the packaging and are removed while handling the packs. This problem can be conveniently overcome by the use of Organic Titanium Compounds in the printing ink formulations.

The Organo Titantes react with the resins like nitrocellulose etc in the printing ink by crosslinking through the free hydroxy, carboxylic and other reactive groups. A normal titanate is found to be very reactive in such systems and, therefore, a Chelated Organic Titanate is used for this purpose. The most recommended ones are Titanium Butyl Phosphate and Titanium Acetyl Acetonate. These, when incorporated in the ink formulations, impart following advantages:

  • The chelate, as told above, reacts with the resin through the active groups and crosslinks it, giving a better adhesion of the ink.
  • The Titanate helps in binding the ink to the substrate and thus improves the adhesion of the printing ink to the surface to be printed. The Titanate molecule in the boundary region between the surface and the printing ink act as adhesion promoters by reacting with, or attaching themselves to the surface of the substrate and by altering properties of the substrate in this way and thus improve adhesion of the ink.
  • The Titanates impart solvent resistance to the ink after it is printed and dried. This occurs because of the delayed crosslinking of the ink taking place at the time of drying of the ink.
  • The addition of Titanate Chelate helps in improving the heat resistance of the ink.
  • Titanates improve the scrub and solvent resistance of the ink.


There are lot of applications of titanates in the polymer industry, both as a catalyst and also as a crosslinking and curing agent.

  • Manufacture of polyesters, both by esterification and transesterification reactions.
  • Manufacture of polyamides.
  • Manufacture of polyolefines (Cocatalyst with Titanium Tetrachloride Titanium oxyhalides and alkylaluminium etc.). It is a cocatalyst for polymerisation of dienes and other unsaturated compounds also. Similarly it is a cocatalyst for dimerisation, oligomerisation and cyclo-oligomerisation also
  • Polycarbonates : Alcoholysis raction between dialkyl carbonates and glycols.
  • Polyurethanes : Catalyst for reaction between polyisocyanates and polyols and polyesters.
  • Formaldehyde resins : Polymerisation of anhydrous formaldehyde. It is a catalyst for polymerisation of other aldehydes also.
  • Polymerisation of epoxides.
  • Silicon resins.
  • Alkyd resins.

Titanates as crosslinking and curing agents :
There are numerous patents and literatures available for this application of titanates. It will be very difficult to put all of them here, only a few are given as under :

  • Silicon resins. Curing at moderate conditions and economically. Also vulcanisation of several silicones and silicone rubbers.
  • Polyesters.
  • Acrylic resins.
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol and Acetals.
  • Nitrocellulose, hydroxy cellulose, cellulose esters and other cellulosic compounds like starch, gelatin and guar gum etc.Also in compositions for hydraulic fracturing of wells.
  • Epoxy resins. Improving gloss, temperature resistance, potlife, electrical properties; better elasticity and mechanical properties.
  • Phenolic resins : Titanate added during manufacturing to improve heat stability.
  • Modified dienes and olefine elastomers and resins : Crosslinking of polymers containing reactive sites like hydroxyl, carboxyl etc. Used for lining of food cans adhesives.

In addition to the above there are many more applications in crosslinking and curing of different resins. The users are requested to contact us with their specific requirements.

Surface Modification

  • Paints and coatings primer
  • Glass - Scratch resistance, providing iridescence, as decorating agent. Also used as colouring and antiglare agent.
  • Metal corrosion protection
  • Filler for plastics - For improving compatibility by modification of fillers. Also used as viscosity modifier for filled formulations.
  • Improve adhesion to plastics including fluropolymers.
  • Promote adhesion of silicone rubber adhesives to metal, glass, plastic fabrics, wood and many other substrates.
  • Additive to Epoxy, acrylic, methacrylic and fluorocarbon adhesives to improve properties.

Other Applications

In addition to the above major ares of applications titanates have been successfully used for the following applications :

  • Adhesion promoting primers for many substrates. Used for lamination of different substrates. (A very useful application- Interested users please contact us for more details)
  • Coupling and dispersion aids.
  • Waterproofing of textiles, leather, masonry etc.
  • For flameproofing in certain applications.
  • Used to apply coating of titanium dioxide on various products used for different applications.
  • Sun-screening agents.
  • Antiperspirant.
  • Antistatic agent in certain applications.
  • Non stick coating in cooking utensils.
  • Iridescent finishes and nacreous and pearl pigments.
  • Lithographic plates.
  • Electronic industry for application of titanium dioxide, to improve electrical characteristics of certain components.
  • Manufacture of inorganic titanates and mixed metal oxides.
  • Fuel oil additives.